This time for something completely different I’ll broach a bit intimidating area—PKI certificate chains that link back both to trusted and untrusted root certificates. That is, how to recognise different trees from quite a long way away.
For some of the readers that know at least a little bit about the matter this might be a quick and easy recipe to solve their problem if they understand it. For those who have no idea of what I’m talking about this still might be an interesting reading if they like exotic trips. Don’t worry though, as I’ll provide some basic introduction without going into much detail. There’s already a smorgasbord of material to learn from if someone’s interested.
I won’t even bother providing links as a reference (except for salient ones) as I find it overwhelming and distracting when a very specific story is sprinkled with lots of links for everything. Sure, one may ignore them (so I’d waste my time providing them) but equally one may look up something on their own if they have an urge to do so (whatever you look for, if you need an authoritative information, always reach out for RFCs). This is what I find to be a pragmatic approach which I think is different from purely scientific one.
A bit of introduction
PKI stands for Public Key Infrastructure and is a monster which a lot of people find hard to get on with. For this article it’s only important to know that it provides means of distributing some cryptographic material referred to as public key in a trusted manner.
What is a public key you may ask and why is it public? Some smart guys in the past have combined a bunch of mathematical operations with huge random numbers and have come up with something known as asymmetric keys. Keys in turn are specially crafted strings of digits used as an input for ciphers. So you have: data + key -> cipher => blob (a ‘cipher’ is a function that eats a ‘data’ and a ‘key’ and spews out a ‘blob’). Asymmetric means that there’s a pair of keys related to each other through some mathematical operations—you can use one to encipher data and the second one to decipher it and the other way around. If you keep one of them secret and give the other one to everyone else you have public-private key pair.
When you give out your public key, someone may want to use it to encipher something that is only intended for you (some secret) as you are supposed to use your private key to decipher it. The problem is that by simply publishing your public key there’s no guarantee that it’s actually your key. No one can really trust it to encipher secrets they want to share only with you. Here is where certificates come into play.
Certificates leverage at least two properties of asymmetric ciphers: authenticity and integrity of data. Again, using some smart mathematical operations and having one of the asymmetric keys, one can tell that the data has not been tampered with and has been ciphered with the other key of the same pair. This process is known as signing and verification and the data exchanged between parties is called a signature.
Certificates are structured bits of information where the essential part is a signature of one party’s (A) public key created with a more trusted party’s (B) private key. Such signature in turn can be verified with a more trusted party’s (B) public key which again can be signed by a more trusted party’s (C) private key (another certificate). This forms a chain of trust (chain of certificates) which ends up at the top with a root certificate.
Root certificates are special as there’s no one who would signed them. They are in fact self-signed. So how does it all make sense? At the very top is a human. It might be you or a system administrator (some people claim they are not humans). No matter how complex processes and policies are employed, it’s always a human being that makes the ultimate decision: I trust something or not.
Root certificate bundles
A system that is supposed to use PKI needs a set of trusted certificates also known as a root CA certificate store (CA stands for Certificate Authority) or a root CA certificate bundle (CA bundle for short). Whatever chain of certificates it needs to verify, it expects that the top-level untrusted certificate in that chain is signed with one of the root certificates stored in the root CA bundle which it ultimately trusts. As a PC user you get a CA bundle onto your system usually distributed with a web browser so you can use HTTPS protocol. You might have been prompted by a browser with some sort of security exception pop-up when visiting a website using HTTPS protocol whose authenticity couldn’t be verified by the browser based on the CA bundle installed (actually the certificate chain sent to your browser as part of the TLS protocol could not be verified or for example the website domain name did not match the one signed by the leaf certificate). The browser in such situation might leave the decision up to you whether to trust the website or not.
This short introduction just scratched the surface. It’s not even a top of an iceberg. There’s a lot more to talk about, like on what basis a human being can make a decision to trust an authority (or simply someone else’s public key) or how to ensure key privacy, what different key usages are and how they are ensured and enforced, cipher suites properties etc. Firstly, I’m not an expert nor a scientist, and secondly, it’s not directly related to the rest of this article.
What this article is actually about?
Given the introduction above or the knowledge you might have already had and a CA bundle, you might face a situation when you need to verify a certificate chain as follows: A signed by B signed by C signed by D but C is in your CA bundle (your system trusts it ultimately) and D is not (your system doesn’t trust it). I’m pretty sure it happened at least once in everyone’s life, even in my dog’s life which I actually don’t have.
You may wonder how it’s possible to have certificate C in the bundle (self-signed) and at the same time have it signed with certificate D. Here’s where I’d like to refer to some external resource where it’s nicely depicted. Note that some people may burble here something about cross-signing but it’s not specific only to this situation as cross-signing simply refers to anything else than self-signing. Don’t get confused by the diagram on the website I referred to. The article there says that one certificate is signed by two other certificates. But it’s not a certificate that is signed nor any certificate signs another one. It’s keys what actually gets signed. So by saying that certificate B signs certificate A, one (hopefully) means that the public key represented by certificate A is signed by the private key corresponding to the public key represented by certificate B.
What’s the catch?
The catch is that if use OpenSSL, you may not be able to verify a chain which
contains a root certificate included in the system CA bundle but signed in that
chain by some other non-trusted root certificate. This is not what is expected
in many situations. Fear not my friend as you’re not left alone. OpenSSL has a
solution for this situation:
X509_V_FLAG_TRUSTED_FIRST verification flag. It
tells it to not follow the chain once a trusted certificate is found.
Now the problem is that it’s not available in all OpenSSL versions. The way I
understand OpenSSL releases is that at the time of this writing there are three
“production” branches available: 0.9.8x, 1.0.0x and 1.0.1x. You’re very likely
using one of them. None of them supports
X509_V_FLAG_TRUSTED_FIRST though. All
you need to do is to apply the following
from the OpenSSL mainline. Now given a naughty certificate chain in
and a CA bundle in
ca-bundle.crt you may try:
but if you use a new
-trusted_first option, it should succeed:
Now all you need to do is to convince your client application to use
X509_V_FLAG_TRUSTED_FIRST option. For example if you are using libcurl, you
may want to apply this patch:
A nice OpenSSL PKI tutorial: https://pki-tutorial.readthedocs.org/en/latest